2.1 Study Design
This study employed the quantitative research method to obtain data regarding respondents’ perception of their bodies and also eating disorder tendency.
A survey of three sets of questionnaires was admitted in this study. The questionnaires were divided into four sections; demographics, body shape questionnaire, body area satisfaction subscale, figure rating scale and eating disorder.
Section one is the demographics, participants were required to fill in personal details such as, age, gender, weight, height and hours of exercise per week. In section two, Body Shape Questionnaire (Cooper et. al., 1987) was employed to measure the concerning level of one’s body shape. The Body Shape Questionnaire consisted of 34 items and used six-point Likert scale (“never,” “rarely,” “sometimes,” “often,” “usually,” “always”). Scores summed from 1 through 6 and total scores ranged from 34 to 204. Generally, a total scores on the BSQ of less than 80 was considered as normal, a range between 80 to 110 would be mild level of body concern, scores between 111 to 140 were categorized moderate and those whose scores exceeded 140 were considered to have significant over-concern of their body image that led to body image distortion. BSQ test showed a good internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha of 0.97(Cooper et. al., 1987)
Besides that, Body Area Satisfaction Subscale (BASS) (Falconer & Neville, 2000) was used to determine the levels of body satisfaction with specify body areas. BASS consisted of nine items, which could rate from 1 to 5 (1 being very satisfied and 5 being very dissatisfied). It means that scores closer to 4 and 5 indicated high levels of body area dissatisfaction. Furthermore, the BASS test has been found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.80) (Falconer & Neville, 2000).
Next, the Figure Rating Scale (Stunkard et. al., 1983) was originally developed to measure of body image disturbance. The scale consists of nine female and male silhouettes, which vary from very thin to very obese. Participants were asked to select silhouettes that most closely resemble their current and ideal body shape. A positive and negative discrepancy score was determined by subtracting the scores of ideal and current body shape. A higher discrepancy score indicates greater desire to have a slimmer body. Figure Rating Scale has been found to have adequate test-retest reliability and validity (Thompson, 1991).
Lastly, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) used in examine eating disorder among the respondent, is a 26-item self-applied test with 4 point Likert scale that measure one’s attitudes, feelings and preoccupations associated with food, weight and exercise (Garner et. al., 1982). Answers range from 3: always, 2: usually, 1: often, 0: sometimes, 0: rarely to 0: never. Besides that, there are three separate subscales in this test: 1) ‘Dieting’, 2) ‘Bulimia and Food Preoccupation’ and 3) ‘Oral control’ (Garner et. al., 1982). A total of 26 items were summed up ranges from minimum 0 to maximum scores of 78. The respondents, who scored a total score of 20 or higher in EAT-26 would be considered to have a tendency of eating behavior and might suffer from anorexia and bulimia nervosa according to DSM-IV-R. EAT-26 does not provide a specific diagnosis of Eating Disorder; however it is regarded as a resourceful discovery for Eating Disorder. The EAT-26 has been tested to a high degree with a correlation coefficient of .98 (Garner et. al., 1982). The EAT-26 has also established adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.90) (Garner et. al., 1982).